ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS
In the historical background, Statistics were collected for the Human population, Agriculture, land records, taxes, and drought assertion since King’s rule itself. In the period of British rule, statistics were collected mainly for the purpose of tax collection.
When Statistics was introduced in the period of 1922, only Agricultural statistics, weekly retails prices and weather reports had been collected. But after the World War II, the production of some important commodities, transportation, Stock, prices and food deficit had been collected.
Data collection played a role in the preparation of five year plans and for the Central and State Governments planning.
Also, in the data collection of agricultural and economical statistics, this Department involved in full
In the State Government
- Department of Economics and Statistics serves as a nodal agency for the State Agriculture Statistics.
- It involved in the Data collection, Compilation and Research activities.
- Reports have been published on the basis of data collected in the fields of Agriculture, Industry and Prices.
This Department plays a major role in the Structure of Department of Economics and Statistics
The Department of Economics and Statistics was introduced in Tamil Nadu in 1953 only when Tamil Nadu was created based on the linguistic. In other States it was introduced before the Independence of India.
Thiru.N.K.Athyanthaya was the First Director of this Department.
In 1953, this Department was created in South Arcot District. After, this Department started to work since 1956-57 in all the Districts of Tamil Nadu and since 1964-65 in all the Taluk level and from 01.09.1981 in Block levels. Since 1988, this Department functions under the Planning and Development Department in the name of Department of Economics and Statistics from 08.02.1996. The Head of the Departments is the Commissioner/Director in the State level. Three Additional Directors are functioning for the Schemes and Administration to assist the Commissioner/Director of this Department.
In 2013, for easy administration, the State has been divided into six regions and for each region one Regional Joint Director has been posted as a head for the regions.
In Districts, this Department is headed by the District Deputy Director of Statistics as a Pay Drawing Officer. In order to assist the District Deputy Director, District level office is having 3 Statistical Officers (one for Administration, one for Schemes and another for Computer), 2 Statistical Inspectors and with Ministerial Staffs.
For each and every Revenue Divisions in the district, one Divisional Assistant Director of Statistics and one Divisional Statistical Inspector are involved in governing the Block level statisticians.
From 1964 to 1981 one Statistical Inspector headed in Taluk level but since 01.09.1981, on the basis of the importance of collecting data in micro level, one Statistical Inspector is appointed in each block and they are implementing various schemes in block level.
Various Schemes implemented by this Department
- National Sample Survey
National Sample Survey (NSS) headed by a Director General is responsible for the conduct of large scale sample surveys in diverse fields of All India basis. Primarily data are collected through nation-wide household surveys on various Socio-economic subjects, Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) etc., Besides these surveys, NSS collects data on rural and urban prices and plays a significant role in the improvement of crop statistics through supervision of the area enumeration and crop estimation survey of the state agencies. It also maintains a frame of urban area units for use in sample surveys in urban areas.
This scheme is implemented once in 6 months or once in a year by field officials.
- Housing Scheme
The Central Government of India has introduced various schemes to help people with different incomes avail a home loan or buy their own house. To achieve, in national level various data on housing in both private and public are being collected annually.
IAY, PMAY and Green houses are introduced based on these data only.
HSUI is internationally considered to be one of the leading economic indicators. It captures the movement of the economy and reflects the phase of the business cycle-boom or recession. Taking into account of the importance of HSUI for Indian economy, NBO in collaboration with Reserve Bank of India is currently engaged in development and operationalising HSUI for the first time in the Country.
The data collected through this scheme are supportive in the fields of building construction and real estate.
The new series of WPI with base 2011-12 is effective from April 2017. Data for WPI (2011-12) has however been provided from April 2012 to March 2017 for the purpose of Research and analysis only. Linking factor given for conversation of WPI (2011-12) indices to WPI (2004-05) Series should be used from April 2017 onwards.
WPI captures the average movement of wholesale prices of goods and is primarily used as a GDP deflator. WPI (2011-12) reckons only basic prices and does not include taxes, rebate/trade discounts, transport and other charges.
The Index of Industrial Production is an index for India which details out the growth of various sectors in an economy such as mineral mining, electricity and manufacturing. The All India IIP is a composite indicator that measures the short-term changes in the volume of production of a basket of industrial products during a given period with respect to that in a chosen base period. It is compiled and published monthly by the National Statistics Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation six weeks after the reference month ends.
In Tamil Nadu, the production related commodities data are being collected and IIP is being collected every month which are used in 21 different Organisations including Reserve Bank of India.
- Group Insurance Scheme
This scheme is a welfare scheme. This scheme is similar to the Family Benefit Fund Scheme for the non-provisionalised employees of Local Bodies, Village Panchayat, Aided Schools, Aided Colleges, Noon Meal Centre and Aided Technical Institutions.
- Block, District, Municipal, Corporation and State Level Handbook.
Various important data are collected from all blocks, municipalities, Corporations, District Departments which are compiled and published as a State Statistical handbook by the Abstract Section.
These data are utilized by the Economists, Researchers, Research Scholars in Institutions, for the Politicians and for the general public. This includes Populations statistics, agriculture statistics, Industries, Education, health, Electricity Consumption, Prices and Commerce etc.
The industrial sector is one of the important sectors of the Indian economy and hence compilation of industrial statistics assumes a crucial importance, both for research and policy-making. The Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) is the principal source of Ind strial Statistics in India. Till ASI 2009-10, the survey was conducted annually under the statutory provisions of the Collection of Statistics Act 1953 and Rules framed there under in 1959 except in the State of Jammu & Kashmir where it is conducted under the Jammu& Kashmir Collection of Statistics Act 1961 and Rules framed there under in 1964.
From ASI 2010-11 onwards, the survey is being conducted annually under the statutory provisions of the Collection of Statistics (COS) Act, 2008 and the rules framed there-under in 2011except in the State of Jammu & Kashmir where it is being conducted under the J&K Collection of Statistics Act, 2010 and rules framed there under in 2012. The Collection of Statistics Act, 2008 has been amended in 2017 as Collection of Statistics (Amendment) Act, 2017 which extends the coverage to All India. Presently, ASI 2019-20 is being conducted under this amendment.
- State Income
The State Income Division annually estimates State Domestic Product and District Domestic Product (Current and Constant Prices) using the concepts and methodology prescribed by the Central Statistics Office under the system of National Accounts (SNA). The work relating to the economic classification of State expenditure including Government undertakings and Local Bodies and preparation of standard tables on regional accounts and Capital Formation are also undertaken by this division. State Income is the measurement, in monetary terms of all the goods and services that an economy within the geographical boundaries of the State, without duplication within a given period of time, generally a year. All Economic activities including items like agricultural crops, livestock products, fisheries, forest products, manufacture of materials in the registered and unregistered sectors, construction of buildings, roads etc. and service like medical and educational services, domestic services, hotels, trade, transport and public services etc. Production, receipts, expenditure, services of these industries are analysed through the methodology followed by National Accounts Division, CSO for sector wise GSDP estimates.
- State Accounts
The objective of the Scheme is to attend the work of Economic and purpose classification of Tamil Nadu Budget every year and to analyse the annual audited accounts of various items of Receipts and Expenditure of Local Bodies such as Municipal Corporations and Municipalities, Panchayat unions, Town Panchayats according to their economic significance as recommended by Regional Accounts Committee, New Delhi. Economic and Purpose Classification of Annual Audited Accounts give a comprehensive picture of all economic activities and serve as a feed back system to Government. The reports are very useful to the Planners, Administrators, Economists and Research Scholars.
- Capital Formation
Capital Formation Capital formation refers to the growth of productivity capacity in different sectors of the Economy during a given period. The objective of the Scheme is to estimate the Gross Fixed Capital Formation for Tamil Nadu in both Public and Private Sectors annually. The estimates of Gross Fixed Capital Formation from private and public Sectors based on the methodology furnished by the Central Statistical Organisation, Government of India.
- Market Intelligence and Prices
A Scheme for improvement of Market Intelligence is being implemented for obtaining the necessary information from important Market Centres all over the State. The scheme requires rapid processing, analyzing and presenting the price data in an appropriate manner so as to enable the Government to keep a careful day to day watch over the changing price situation and to take corrective measures whenever necessary. Market Intelligence pertains to information on Prices, Arrivals, Despatches, Stocks, Market sentiments etc., in respect of all important commodities for which large scale transactions takes place at 96 selected Centres in Tamil Nadu. Accurate price data and other market information are required for formulation of policies in matters relating to Price control, Price support, Fixation of prices during procurement, Construction of Cost of Living Indices and Wholesale, Rural and Urban Price Indices. The price data are also used in the estimation of State Income.
Whole time technical Statistical personnel posted in the 22 Market Centres are entrusted with the task of collection of prices and to study market sentiments. The Price Collector collects data on Arrivals, Despatches and Stocks of commodities by verifying the records of the important merchants and millers, supplemented by tactful oral enquiries.
Wholesale and Retail prices are obtained by actually visiting the market during the peak marketing period of the day and observing a few major transactions supplemented with oral enquiries from several dealers in the market.
- General Crop Estimation Survey
Crop cutting experiments are conducted on major 16 crops to assess the average yield.
- To estimate the average yield per hectare of individual crops for the districts and for the state as a whole with a reasonable degree of precision.
- To estimate the production for the individual district and for the State
Size of Experimental Plots:
- 5m X 5m – for Paddy, Groundut, Millets, Sugarcane (1/400th of an hectare)
- 10m X 5m – for Pulses, Cotton, Gingelly, Sunflower (1/200th of an hectare)
- 3 types of Forms, viz., Form I, Form II, Form III
- Form I gives information regarding the experimental plot selected and the details relating to agricultural practices adopted in the field.
- Form II is intended for details relating to the harvested produce.
- Details of driage operations are collected in Form III.
- Crop Estimation Survey on Fruits and Vegetables
Crop cutting experiments conducted for 8 major Fruit Crops: Banana, Mango, Guava, Jack, , Lemon and Grape, and 5 Vegetable Crops: Cabbage, Lady’s finger, Brinjal, Sweet Potato and Tomato.
- Recorded area in the Adangal for the crop selected for the Survey
- Villages are selected in proportion to area under each crop in the taluk
- Two gardens
- Two experimental plots are chosen.
- A piece of land with a minimum number of nine fruit trees
- Planted in an order
- Bearing Tree: Tree of fruit bearing age, which had either borne fruits anytime in the past or during the season.
- Non-Bearing Tree:
- Does not show flower
- Not attained bearing age during enumeration
- Reached the bearing age, not found bearing fruit due to disease, old age, etc.,
- To arrive at reliable estimation of average yield per hectare and production estimates of each crop both at district and State level.
- Collection of ancillary information on cultivation practices like irrigation, manuring, high yielding varieties etc.
- In addition, in respect of fruit trees, the following aspects also been covered.
- Estimation of number of bearing and non-bearing trees,
- Estimation of average yield per bearing tree
- Crop Estimation Survey on Minor Crops
Crop cutting experiments conducted for 8 minor crops, Chillies, Turmeric, Tapioca, Coriander, Ginger, Onion, Potato and Cashewnut.
- To assess average per hectare and production.
- Manuring, high yielding varieties, agricultural practices.
Crop Estimation Survey on Coconut and Arecanut
Area and Production estimates for coconut in one village 2 experiments in each Block.
- To estimate total number of palms of coconut
- To estimate average number of bearing and non-bearing palms of coconut/arecanut per hectare
- To estimate average yield per palm of coconut/arecanut
- To access information on agricultural practices – manuring-Irrigation – Disposal of produce etc.,
- Procedures as followed in general Crop Estimation Survey
- One Village, Two Garden/grove
- 25 and above , three rows
- Agriculture wage and C&A work is carried out in the same village
- Approximate month of harvest to be recorded
- Plan the work according to the month of harvest
- Direct observation to be made during any one of the harvests
- Avoid the garden/grove if it has non-bearing tress entirely. If the entire trees in the garden not attained the age of grove need not be considered
- Then select next grove
- Alternative villages may be selected when the crops are not grown
- For coconut in numbers
- For arecanut, unpeeled green nuts to be weighed for each harvest –The unit is in Kg.
- Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
- The Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme was implemented from 1985-86 to 1999-2000 Kharif season which was sponsored by Government of India.
- Thereafter Government of India sponsored National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) from 2000 Rabi season onwards. Modified NAIS implemented from 2011-12 Rabi season on trial basis in three districts namely Namakkal, Cuddalore and Sivagangai at village level upto 2014-15 Kharif season.
- Now, the village level coverage is proposed to extend all districts under a new scheme namely Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY). The chief objectives of PMFBY are as follows:
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) aims at supporting sustainable production in agriculture sector by way of
- Providing financial support to farmers suffering crop loss / damage arising out of unforeseen events
- Stabilising the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming
- Encouraging farmers to adopt innovative and modern agricultural practices
- Ensuring flow of credit to the agriculture sector, which will contribute to food security, crop diversification and enhancing growth and competitiveness of agricultural sector besides protecting farmers from production risks?
Role of DES under proposed PMFBY:
The role played by DES in NAIS as stated above is further extended to village level under PMFBY with the same pattern of work.
The number of experiments has gone up from 9788 to 119026 from the year 1985-86 to 2015-16 already. In the event of implementing PMFBY, the number of crop cutting experiments is expected to cross 2.40 lakhs.
The scheme is expected to:
- Be a critical instrument of development in the field of crop production, providing financial support to the farmers in the event of crop failure.
- Encourage farmers to adopt progressive farming practices and higher Technology in Agriculture.
- Help in maintaining flow of Agricultural credit.
- Providing significant benefits not merely to the insured farmers, but to the entire community directly and indirectly through spillover and multiplier effects in terms of maintain production and employment generation of market fees, taxes etc and net accretion of economic growth.
- Streamline loss assessment procedures and help in building up huge and accurate statistical base for crop production. The indemnity payable to the farmers is decided on the basis of Block level average yield of the crops determined through crop cutting experiments conducted on the notified Blocks/Districts.
Crop cutting experiments conducted on 24 crops for estimating Village/ Firkka level average yield for payment of indemnity to affected farmers for the year 2016 onwards.
- On receipt of the notification of crops along with Firkas / Blocks / Districts from the Agriculture Department, the Department of Economics and Statistics take follow up action for Planning and Organization of the Crop Cutting Experiments.
- Providing insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of any of the notified crops due to natural calamities viz. drought, flood etc. and to restore credit worthiness of farmers after a crop failure.
- Encouraging the farmers to adopt progressive farming practices.
- To support and stimulate production of food crops and non food crops.
- As per the guidelines of Government of India from the year 2000-2001 under National Agricultural Insurance Scheme results are estimated on the basis of single series system combining the results of General Crop Estimation survey & National Agricultural Insurance Scheme.
- A minimum of 10/18 crop cutting experiments are planned and conducted under each notified crop at the Firka/Block levels respectively.
- Under MNAIS, a minimum of 4 experiments are planned and conducted at village level for all the notified crops except groundnut crop. For groundnut crop 8 experiments are planned and conducted in all the notified villages.
- Now, the Crop cutting experiments conducted on 24 crops for estimating Village/ Firka level average yield for payment of indemnity to affected farmers for the year 2016 onwards under Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana Scheme (PMFBY)
- The Department of Economics and Statistics undertakes the selection of sample villages, supervision, scrutiny, processing and tabulation of the data collected from the field and furnish the Firka/Block/Village-wise average yield estimates to the Insurance Companies and the State Government within the cut off dates prescribed for each crops.
- The field work is attended by the Assistant Agricultural Officers of the Agriculture / Horticulture & Plantation Crops Departments in the districts with the necessary technical assistance from Block Statistical Inspectors, Statistical Officers and Divisional Assistant Director of Statistics under the supervision of Deputy Directors in the District and Regional Joint Directors at the Regional level.
- The Government of Tamilnadu is contributing 50% share through the Tamil Nadu Crop Insurance Fund Committee.
18. Agricultural Census
11th Agricultural Census has commenced. Collection of data on the type of holdings and holder’s social status, land use, irrigation status, cropping pattern, tenancy status, livestock, agriculture machinery and implements, use of fertilizers, etc., is carried out.
- Agriculture Census in India is conducted quinquennially.
- The reference period in 11th Agriculture Census is the agriculture year e., from July 2020 to June 2021.
- To provide statistical data on operational holdings, operated area, land utilization, live-stock, agricultural machinery and implements, use of fertilizers etc.
- To provide data needed for formulating new agricultural development programme and for evaluating their progress.
- To provide basic framework of operational holdings and its characteristics for carrying out future agriculture surveys.
- To lay basis for developing integrated programme for current agricultural statistics.
- All land which is used wholly or partly for agricultural production and is operated as one technical unit by one person alone or with others without regard to title, legal form, size of location.
- A technical unit has been defined as that unit which is under the same management and has the same means of production such as labour force, machinery and animals.
- Operated area would include both cultivated and uncultivated area, provided part of it is put to agricultural production during the reference period
- The Operated area may be comprise of
- a) Land owned and self operated
- b) Land Leased in
- c) Land otherwise operated
- In this schedule, the list of operational holders residing & operating within the village and outside the same taluk is collected.
- In this schedule, the list of non resident operational holders operating within the sample village are collected.
- In this schedule, the village summary for the purpose of tallying the figures of Operational holdings at village level and also other basic infrastructure facilities in the village are compiled, for the third time since the inception of the Agriculture Census.
- In this main schedule (abstract of one village), the number and area of operational holdings according to sex, major size classes, social groups and types of holdings are computed.
- In this schedule, the details of operational holdings i.e., land utilization, sources of irrigation, type of crops grown etc., are collected on sampling basis.
FARMERS PROFILE :
- Marginal Farmers : land below one hectare
- Small Farmers: between one and two hectares
- Semi‐medium Farmers : between two and four hectares
- Large farmers : land more than ten hectares
- Medium Farmers : land between four and ten hectares
AGRICULTURE CENSUS OUTPUT
- Number of operational holdings by size class, social group, gender and infrastructural facilities
- Number and area by tenancy status, terms of lease, land use, irrigation status and source of irrigation, cropping pattern
- Area under multiple cropping, application of fertilizers, seed variety, livestock and agricultural machineries and equipments
- Improvement of Crop Statistics
- The main objective of the scheme is to attempt jointly by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) and the State Agricultural Statistics Authority (SASA) to undertake about sample checks over the primary field work done by VAO’s and to effect improvements in the quality of primary data in respect of both crop-area and yield estimation surveys in the
- The scheme is further expected to provide the basis for determining the precise lines on which the improvement in the crop estimation system would require to be effected.
- This scheme locates deficiencies in the system of collection of agricultural statistics by supervising Village Administrative Officer’s work.
- Timely Reporting Scheme
- TRS Scheme was introduced in Tamil Nadu during the year 1972-73 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme by the Union Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation.
- Stratified Uni-stage Random Sampling design with the Block as Stratum is adopted for village selection.
- On Sampling basis 20 percent villages are selected randomly every year. Hence, once in five years all the villages in the State will be covered under TRS.
- Based on the 20 percent sample data, total area for each of the nine principal crops for each season are being estimated by adopting Unbiased Sampling method.
- Land use statistics collected in 20% sample villages every year to estimate the area under high yielding and native crop varieties and the area under irrigation.
- Data relating to Land Use Statistics under nine-fold classification were collected from the Village records for the previous one year under TRS. Based on these data, estimates of area for the current year under nine-fold classification were projected.
- Duration of various seasons are as follows:
|July to October
|November to January
|February & March
Rainfall data is collected from 21 manual rain gauge stations in each block and monthly, seasonal, annual rainfall statistics are compiled.
Cropped area and source-wise Irrigation intensity, area irrigated for major crops.
- Agricultural Wage constitute a major item in the cost of production – To assess the trend of cost of agricultural production
- To estimate the average rates of daily wages paid to different categories of agricultural laborers.
- To build up indices and measure changes in their wage rate at monthly intervals.
- The details are collected in the villages in the districts, where Coconut and Arecanut survey is carried out.
- Here, a village for each block is selected at random from the TRS Village list.
- Block Statistical Inspectors are responsible for this item of work.
- BSI’s to collect the data during 4th Friday of each month
Classifications of Agricultural Labourers:
- Field Labourers: Ploughman, Sowers, Pluckers, Transplanters. Reapers and Harvesters.
- Other Agricultural Labourers: Watering of fields, carrying loads, digging wells, and other agricultural related.
Agricultural Wages are collected in all the blocks and index computed monthly.
Quantity of Paddy available for sale after deducting the own consumption of cultivators and seed reserves.